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Anak Krakatau

Anak Krakatau:

Hazard for visitors!

Java

Anak Krakatau emerged form the ocean - out of the Krakatau Caldera - in 1927. Since than, the tiny island is growing with many eruption periods. Sometimes it is quit on this island Anak Krakatau, with only steaming craters, but sometimes verry tough eruptions occure. Volcanian explosions from the island vents can cause pyroclastics rise km high into the sky. "Bombs" can hit any qm of the island, even when some parts turn out to be safer than others.
Many visitors have reported to VHDL dramatic visits of the island during high explosiv phases. Some pictures below document this. The notice for any visitors is to have a close look and study of the activity. Do not go there without lokal guides and beware of walking in not vegetated parts on the island. Do not climb the crater area unless you are very aware of what you do.
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Images from left: glowing lava in the crater; rare lava fountain Sep. 2011; red glow over the crater.
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Images from left: violent explosions; eruption by night; bombs travel far.
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Images from left: eruption by night; bombs hit the water; fresh bomb at the forest line.

Abstract:

The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 AD, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927. (GVN (c))


Some important links:
  1. Another link to the GVN
  2. USGS, U.S. Geological Survey (Volcano Hazards Program)
  3. IAVCEI, International Association of Volcanology and Chemisry of Earth's Interior
  4. VAAC The Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre
  5. SSEC Satellite images of volcanic areas

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